Natural marine environment, abnormal or drastic changes, resulting in the sea or the coast as marine disasters disasters. Mainly refers to the storm surge of marine disasters, disaster, disaster waves, sea ice hazards, sea fog disaster, hurricane, earthquake and tsunami disaster and the red tide, sea water intrusion, oil spills and other unexpected disasters, natural disasters.
The main reasons caused by marine disasters have a strong atmospheric disturbance, such as tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones; disturbance of marine water body or state of their own sudden change; undersea earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides associated with the seabed, to crack. Not only the threat of natural disasters, ocean marine and coastal, and some compromise along the urban-rural economy and people's lives and property safety. For example, the strong storm surges caused by the transgression (ie, water on the land), anywhere from a few kilometers in China, as much as 20 kilometers to 30 kilometers, or 70 kilometers, a particular tide has flooded up to 7 counties. The marine disasters in the affected area will cause a lot of secondary disasters and derivatives disasters. Such as: storm surge caused by coastal erosion, land salinization; marine pollution caused by biological toxins disasters.
Many countries in the world due to the marine impact of natural disasters is very serious. For example, only the formation of typhoons in the tropical ocean (called hurricanes in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean) caused by flood, storm surge, storm waves and winds of the typhoon disaster in itself, to contribute to global natural disasters, loss of life by 60%. Typhoons every year billions of dollars in economic losses, all the natural disasters, economic losses of about 1 / 3. Therefore, the ocean is the world's most important source of natural disasters.
Pacific is the world's most troubled sea. Northwest Pacific typhoon with its many and well-known, according to statistics, the global tropical oceans occur about 80 typhoons each year, of which 3 / 4 occurred in the Northern Hemisphere oceans, and near the Pacific Northwest to China accounted for a global total of typhoon 38%, ranking eight in the first typhoon zone. Which seriously affected our country, and often lead to disasters, nearly 20 per year, the average annual landing of 7, about 4 times the United States, Japan, 2 times, 30 times more than Russia and other countries. If the landing typhoon less than normal, will result in China's eastern and southern regions of drought and crop failures. However, the high side or those who Typhoon intake of a large energy from the sea, the strong typhoon, the sea and the coast can not only lead to disaster, after landing will lead to flood, triggered landslides, mudslides and other geological disasters. After the typhoon land is generally more than 500 kilometers in depth, sometimes up to 100O kilometers. Therefore, you can often cause a typhoon or even hundreds of billions of billions of dollars in economic losses. 1931 to 1977, according to statistics, China's heavy rainfall occurred in the 26 flood, 56% is caused by the typhoon landed. Because of the large cities of more than 70%, more than half of the population and 55% of the national economy, concentrated in the eastern economic zones and coastal areas. These sources in the ocean of serious natural disasters in China caused economic losses and casualties, been close to or more than the country's most severe natural disasters, the loss of half of the total.
Comprehensive statistics on the past 20 years, our country by the storm surge, storm waves, severe sea ice, sea fog and high winds at sea and other marine disasters caused direct economic losses of about 5 million per year, about 500 people died. Economic losses to the coast storm surge damage caused by the most, while the deaths are mainly offshore wind storms should do. The current overall situation, marine disasters caused losses to the world the rise.
After the founding of the PRC, the party and government attach great importance to disaster relief work, a marine disaster caused tens of thousands, and even the deaths of more than a dozen people had never occurred. However, due to the increase in coastal population, coastal areas and the uplift of rural industrial and agricultural production development of marine economy in China since the economic losses caused by marine disasters, but the rise was rapid.
"China's marine disasters in 2005 Communique", the Ocean for the founding of the most disaster losses. In 2005, China's marine disasters, there were storm surge, tide, waves, oil spills and other marine disasters, 176, 11 coastal provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) all affected, causing direct economic losses of 33.24 billion yuan. Deaths (including missing) 371. Storm surge disasters in which the most serious losses: 11 total full-year storm surge, caused by disasters, which 9 times, 5 times higher than the previous year; 9 extratropical storm surge occurred, which caused a second disaster in some areas of Shandong Province. Storm surge caused a total of 32.98 billion yuan in direct economic losses, deaths (including missing) 137. Followed by the wave disaster, disaster waves 191 million yuan of direct economic losses, deaths (including missing) 234. Red tides of public concern that only 69 million yuan of direct economic losses.
As China's national strength, marine and coastal areas of the economy will have greater economic and demographic developments, such as do not take effective measures to strengthen maritime disaster prevention, not only economic loss is difficult to come down the momentum of growth, will result in personal life property damage recovery.