Oil Pollution: Earth's "cancer"

来源:   发布时间:0000-00-00 00:00:00 

October 24, 2010, Dalian New Port oil depot, "7.16" reproduced scene of the explosion fire, firefighters at the scene of the fire fighting. Reporter Cai Yongjun / photo
 
 
  Gulf of Mexico oil spill incident, many from the seedling crabs collected in the region with a clear orange oil droplets, oil spills harm upstream along the food chain
 
    Smoke filled the air filled with choking odor, although the scene of the fire is not large, but enough to make people scared into a cold sweat: October 24 evening, had an explosion on July 16 and led to a large number of oil spills of the oil tank 103, Dalian Bay on fire again.
 
The media quoted insiders as saying the scene before the incident, 103 tanks are being dismantled, probably in the bottom of the tank cleaning process, the construction of a jar left accidentally ignited the oil cause a fire. At 2:00 on October 25, the fire was completely extinguished. Xinhua reported no casualties, no crude oil and sewage pollution into the sea.
 
    However, the fire brought back almost all media for the memories of the last explosion. July 16, the oil pipeline explosion in Dalian, Xingang, more than 1,000 tons of crude oil leaked, resulting in a large area of marine pollution, Dalian Bay, covered with a thick layer of crude oil, to local public life and fisheries, tourism zone to huge losses.
 
Experts and environmentalists believe that explosion and the impact of pollution in Dalian sea area will be "long-term."
 
Dalian sea area when they can fully recover the ecological environment is still unknown, but recently a new phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico, but people on concerns about the future of Dalian sea.
 
Sea crab with a small oil droplets
 
The end of September, in the U.S. state of Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi, there has been shocking scene: the sea floating on a dense many dead fish, crab and eel's body found in the vicinity of the whale's body. This sea area was known as the "sea of death."
 
As this sea near the Gulf of Mexico, it was suspected that they died of petroleum poisoning. In fact, this Qishi leak in April this year, the event has been forget end: September 19, the U.S. government officially announced that it has passed through the Gulf of Mexico oil leakage pressure test, was permanently blocked.
 
But ecologists believe that the impact of the incident is far from over. The entire incident, there were the equivalent of 490 million barrels of crude oil leaked into the sea. Although three-quarters of sea water leaked into the oil or natural dissipation have been cleared, but the U.S. University of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Research Laboratory biologist 哈丽雅特佩 in recently pointed out that since the onset of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, many crabs collected from the region have an obvious orange seedlings droplets.
 
"I have studied crabs for 42 years, and have never seen such a thing." She could not estimate the seedlings by oil pollution, the amount of crabs, but crabs that inhabit the area known area of about 40% by the leakage the impact of the oil.
 
"This means that oil is not just floating in the water, but has been in a can along the food chain into a position upstream," biologist at Loyola University New Orleans, said Bob Thomas, "by oil pollution crab may be eaten by some animals, then that animal will be eaten by larger animals, and so on. "
 
Thomas said that small animals may only be small amounts of oil so it can survive, but those in the animal food chain, such as dolphins and tuna, may be sufficient intake of deadly "dose" of oil.
 
"Oil has become a major source of pollution of water environment is one." China Environmental Science Research Institute researcher Zhao Yuan chapter describes, in addition to the Gulf of Mexico oil spills and Dalian "7.16" incident explosion that caused the oil leak, oil tanker oil spills is a huge source of pollution can not be ignored.
 
    "Just as the ground vehicle collision, the tanker sailing in the sea often have an accident." Zhang Yuan Zhao, due to many of our waters, a large oil tanker oil spill occurred almost every year once or twice, and the frequency accelerating. According to statistics, Dalian Marine 8 years to 80 minor incidents occurred, the "each accident caused by different levels of oil are accumulated in the sea, river channels."
 
Land, neglected gas station pollution
 
For marine oil pollution is only one aspect of oil pollution. Industry experts, manufacturers of petroleum and its products will be volatile during the large amounts of oil and gas, storage tanks and pipelines underground leaks also cause serious soil and water pollution, and pollution have hidden these big, strong accumulation of and so on.
 
    Oil in the mining process, will produce a large number of oily wastewater, hazardous waste mud and other contaminants, if not handled properly it will pollute the surrounding soil, rivers or groundwater. As oil will quickly penetrate into the soil, killing micro-organisms in the soil, thereby changing the soil composition, changes in the surface ecology, contaminated areas may be decades or even centuries of time will be barren. Through the crop and its toxic substances into the food chain system, especially the groundwater, and ultimately harm humans. Many studies have shown that some petroleum hydrocarbons into the animals, the mammals and humans to the carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic effect.
 
Shell has set up its 1,100 gas stations in the UK survey found that one-third of these filling stations have already caused local soil and groundwater contamination. Similar situation in the Czech Republic, Hungary and South America have occurred in some countries.
 
In early 2008, U.S. investigators on Long Island, New York, 52 gas stations in the time-consuming investigation 4 years accidentally discovered the existence of which 32 stations are not aware of the problem of oil leakage, and these leaks can build soil pose a threat to the water layer. The 2.7 million Long Island residents is the only source of drinking water from underground aquifers.
 
It is understood that gas station underground fuel tanks leak, the oil will form a plume, and slowly immersed in the soil, and over time, penetrate into the ground 25 meters deep aquifers. Overseas studies have found that living in the gas station or auto repair shop near the risk of children suffering from acute leukemia to 4 times higher than the average. Therefore, some developed countries have the gas stations and landfill sites on earth as the two "cancer."
 
China, a lack of constraints and regulations
 
This world-class problem in China is also a problem. Currently, the registration operation of gas stations in Beijing will have more than a thousand, and about 110,000 gas stations.
 
Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the investigation and the test results show that current city water, the pollutants of petrochemical products have been widespread. Professor Wang Zhansheng Environment Department of Tsinghua University, said: "Even more alarming is that so far, authorities did not conduct a special study of how much leakage has occurred, how much leakage is about to happen, is difficult to say."
 
HAN Xiao-ping, director of China's energy network information is explained to reporters, on the one hand such a situation may arise from gas stations do not want to invest in self-monitoring, and the corresponding environmental authorities often fines gas station oil spill occurred; another China is indeed possible due to the lack of professional monitoring tool.
 
Zhao Zhang Yuan introduced, often only with the replacement of underground oil spills and other measures to deal with new soil, required considerable time and cost. United States, a number of serious pollution point, willing to spend millions of dollars, but also with a number of years was able to restore regulation. In order to prevent water pollution, the United States has always prohibited in the Great Lakes Legislative development of oil. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prevent the leakage of underground tanks and underground tanks has also developed close a lot of regulations, such as the provisions of the owner or the tank must be registered users of the underground tank leakage monitoring devices installed, and asked them equipment kept in good condition; permanent closure of the tank, within 30 days notify the local environmental protection departments.
 
But China in the prevention of oil pollution, the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect. Experts recommended that as soon as possible leakage of oil pollution legislation management, so that more people informed and involved in the leakage of oil pollution prevention and management in the past.
 
Links: nearly 20 years of major oil pollution incident
 
    January 1991, during the Gulf War, Iraqi troops from Kuwait oil wells in Kuwait before the fire, as many as 100 million tons of oil spills, pollution, Saudi Arabia, 500 km northwest of the coastal area.
 
December 1992, the Greek tanker "Aegean Sea" in the northwest of Spain ran aground near the port of La Coruna in two parts, more than 70,000 tons of crude oil spills, pollution of 200 km along the coast of Galicia region.
 
February 1996, the Liberian oil tanker "Sea Queen" in the United Kingdom ran aground near the western 威尔士圣安 angle, 14.7 tons of crude oil leaked, resulting in more than 25,000 birds died.
 
December 1999, Maltese oil tanker "Erika" in the waters of a storm in northwestern France, broken sink, leak more than 10,000 tons of heavy oil, 400 km of coastal areas are polluted.
 
November 2002, Liberian tanker "Prestige" sank in the disintegration of the Spanish north-west area, at least 63,000 tons of heavy oil leak. Thousands of kilometers of coastal pollution, tens of thousands of seabirds died.
 
November 2007, carrying 4,700 tons of heavy oil in the Russian tanker "Volga-Oil 139" in the Kerch Strait, encountered strong winds, the disintegration of the sinking, 2,000 tons of heavy oil spills, over 30,000 seabirds died.
 
April 2010, is located in the southern United States Gulf of Mexico "Deep Horizon" rig explosion, oil spill caused by the accident up to the formation of a more than 100 kilometers of the pollution belt.
 
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