Review of patented technology for oil spill recovery at sea
(Patent Office of the State Intellectual Property Office Patent Examination Collaboration Hubei Center)
As one of the major energy sources of industry, agriculture, transportation and daily life, oil production and consumption are very uneven in the region. Therefore, the safe transportation of oil is one of the important links in the oil industry. Of the task. Oil tankers in the loading and unloading, transport, oil spills occur from time to time. Leakage in the sea oil film will cover the surface of the sea, which formed a large area of the oil film will be isolated from the normal sea air exchange process, which not only destroyed the marine ecological balance, and wasted valuable oil resources. With the rapid development of China's economy, the demand for oil and transportation volume is also rising, followed by an increasing number of oil spills. In the event of an oil spill, effective measures must be taken in time to remove oil spills at sea. Oil spill recovery technology plays an important role in coping with sudden sea overflow accident.
In this paper, the common forms of marine oil spill recovery and its application, advantages and disadvantages are expatiated firstly. Then, based on the patent application data of marine oil spill recovery technology in China, the patent application of oil spill recovery technology in China is analyzed. The status quo for enterprises to determine the direction of scientific research and patent strategy to provide a reference layout.
Current Status of Oil Spill Recovery Technology at Sea
In order to reduce the oil pollution of the ocean, oil spill occurred, we must promptly take effective measures to remove the recovery. At present, marine oil spill treatment measures are divided into three categories: physical, biological and chemical methods.
Physical Methods for Oil Spill Recovery at Sea
In general, the best way to deal with oil spill is the physical method, because the physical removal both to achieve the purpose of protecting the marine environment, but also the recovery of valuable oil resources, is currently the most widely used oil spill treatment technology. The physical method is to separate the oil spill from the water surface without changing the existing form of oil spill. The oil spill can be recovered by the mechanical device or by the adsorption material. This method is especially suitable for recovering oil spills. oil. However, the method is affected by wind and wave, viscosity and other factors.
2.2 The biological method of oil spill recovery at sea
Some naturally occurring microorganisms in the ocean or soil have a strong ability of oxidative decomposition of oil, biological method is the use of oil as a microbial metabolism of nutrients will be the degradation of oil spills, so as to achieve the purpose of removing oil spills. Bioprocessing usually does not cause secondary contamination and is applicable to thin oil zones where conventional mechanical devices can not be removed and where chemicals are restricted from use. However, when large-scale oil spills occur and the oil film is thick, the growth of the bacteria is limited due to the shortage of nutrition and oxygen supply. The treatment process is slow and the technology is not mature at present. It is still in the transition from basic research to practical research. , It is difficult to really into the large and medium-sized oil spill in the deal.
2.3 Chemical methods for the recovery of oil spills at sea
Chemical methods include in situ combustion and chemical reagents.
(1) in-situ combustion: combustion method, so that a large number of oil spills can be burned in a short time, without complex devices, processing costs low. The results show that in situ combustion is a potential and effective way to deal with oil spill when the conditions such as water content and oil layer thickness are suitable. However, taking into account the effects of combustion products on the growth and reproduction of marine life, damage may be caused to nearby ships and coastal facilities, and the smoke generated during combustion can also contaminate the atmosphere, and therefore can only be used in high seas off the coast. Method.
(2) chemical reagent method: Chemical reagent method is to use a variety of chemical agents to change the physical properties of oil spills in order to achieve the purpose of removing oil, apply to deal with thin oil film, chemical treatment of oil spills, including oil dispersant , Oil collection agent, oil condensate and oil absorption agent.
Statistical Analysis of Domestic and Overseas Patent Applications for Oil Spill Recovery at Sea
In order to understand the patent application and distribution of oil spill recovery technology in China, the author relies on the patent search and service system to conduct a comprehensive search based on the Chinese patent abstract database and the Chinese patent full text database as of December 31, 2015, A total of 1117 patent applications related to oil spill recovery at sea were retrieved.
3.1 General Trends of Chinese Patent Applications
Figure 1 shows the trend of offshore oil spill recovery technology in China. According to statistical analysis, the amount of patent applications in this field is not large until 2003, which is only about 10 applications per year. This is related to China's early economic level and the demand for oil supply. But at the same time, There have been related aspects of the patent application, indicating that the technical research started relatively early. From 2003 to 2009, although the amount of patent applications increased, but the increase is slow, indicating that China's demand for oil has been increased, but the oil spill recovery technology is still not too much attention, the study did not scale. However, since 2010, China's related areas of patent applications show a sudden increase. The author analyzed the study found that in April 2010 the Gulf of Mexico oil spill occurred in the United States, the major leak, every day about 10,000 tons of oil spill into the Gulf of Mexico, compared to the 2007 Russian oil tanker, "Volga Oil 139" The occurrence of more than 3,000 tons of heavy oil spill, the leakage of crude oil can be described as the total number of astronomical figures, whether economic or ecological have brought an indelible hazard. July 2010, Dalian, Liaoning, China near the New Port of an oil pipeline explosion in the fire, causing some oil spills into the sea, causing at least 50 square kilometers near the sea surface pollution. It is precisely because of these two major oil spill caused international and domestic leaders, experts, scholars attach great importance to, resulting in the explosive growth of patent applications. On the whole, China's oil spill recovery technology patent applications in the rapid growth period after 2010, the current patent applications in this area is still active.
3.2 Analysis of Trends in Patent Application Volume of Three Types of Methods for Recovering Oil Spills at Sea
From the above we can see that the marine oil spill treatment measures are mainly physical, biological and chemical methods. Figure 2 shows the applications of physical, biological, chemical processing method with three categories year change trend. Since 2002 fewer patent applications related fields, so the trend Statistics Day since 2003. Physical method based on their own easily modified, practical, no secondary pollution, and associated information technology to flourish and other advantages, applications have been firmly on the biological and chemical methods. Since 2010 after the number of patent applications of physical laws was explosive growth, indicating that rapid technological development in the field the most, the most active research carried out, is a hot topic in recent years. Although biological and chemical methods since 2010, after applications have also increased, but due to biological treatment is slow and has not been large scale use of chemical may cause secondary pollution and other defects, the growth rate is relatively slow. For physical, although its prospects quite broad, public awareness of the larger heat technology, but from the point of view of patent applications, patents want to have some innovative applications for the same difficult; on the contrary, biological and chemical methods of patent applications downturn, may be due to the difficulty of such technologies to overcome the pre-large until after the break through the bottleneck technology may be able to get a huge development is also unknown, related universities, research institutes can strengthen the focus on such areas of technology, increasing research efforts . ...... See original: http: //mp.weixin.qq.com/s __biz = MzIyMTM0ODg5NQ == & mid = 2247484753 & idx = 1 & sn = bba7a67d48d61d2f8838bd9dc48151a8 & chksm = e83f5021df48d9373f400fbdfebf9c64d8238fc4f2c20fb6c53de4b3cfcf6cee89e13f6be2fd & scene = 1 & srcid = 0923Lx6EdVNSeFOcwLrofynk # rd?